En-ROADS Model Version History

January 2022 Release

Interface Changes

  • Added a new slider, “Years to achieve other greenhouse gas targets” in the “Methane & Other Gases” advanced view, to allow for simulating the 2021 Global Methane Pledge.

  • Changed the start year for input sliders to 2022.

  • Improved the titles of the miniature graphs for consistency and clarity.

  • Adjusted the y-axis range on the “Revenue & Cost from Taxes & Subsidies” graph.

  • Reordered the datasets in the CDR graphs to match the order of the sliders in the “Technological Carbon Removal” view.

Model Upgrade

  • En-ROADS model to version 22.1.0

  • Fixed the behavior of economic assumption sliders (e.g., “Plant development time”, “Plant construction time”, and “Progress ratio”) so that they do not affect model outputs in past years.

December 2021 Release

Interface Changes

  • Russian translation: The core En-ROADS interface is now available in Russian.

  • Improved sharing of the “UN Pledges” feature. When opening a shared scenario that includes the “Greenhouse Gas Net Emissions” graph, the “All Countries Follow NDCs” bar will be shown if the sender had the feature enabled.

  • Corrected the types of power plants in the descriptions for the “CCS effectiveness” sliders (found under Assumptions).

Model Upgrade

  • En-ROADS model to version 21.12.0

November 2021 Release

Interface Changes

  • UN Pledges: Added a “Show UN Pledges (NDCs)” option to the actions menu for the “Greenhouse Gas Net Emissions” graph. (Click the three vertical dots icon to reveal the menu.) When selected, a red bar will appear on the graph, indicating the approximate level of emissions in 2030 if all countries were to follow their emissions reduction pledges.

  • Renamed the “Marginal Cost of Renewables—Area” graph to “Marginal Cost of Wind and Solar—Area”. The graph description now indicates that the data for “Wind & Solar” includes other renewable sources (which comprise a small percentage of capacity).

  • Amended the Electrification slider descriptions to state that the Baseline scenario can contribute to electrification.

  • Amended the Electrification and Energy Efficiency slider descriptions to state that the action is phased in over 10 years.

  • Improved the descriptions for the “Electric demand response technology” and “Electric carrier” progress ratio sliders (found under Assumptions).

  • Improved color contrast on the “Sea Level Rise—Flood Risk Map.”

  • Fixed the Help > En-ROADS User Guide menu item to open the translated version of the User Guide when available (when German is the selected language, for example).

Model Upgrade

  • En-ROADS model to version 21.11.0

  • Fixed an issue that caused a mismatch in the Baseline and Current Scenario lines on the “% Electricity Consumption from Qualifying Sources” graph.

October 2021 Release

Interface Changes

  • Sea level rise maps: Flood risk maps from Climate Central have been integrated into En-ROADS under Graphs > Impacts. These maps display the land areas that are at risk of flooding due to sea level rise, as well as the land that can be saved by actions made in the Current Scenario in En-ROADS. More details of this new feature are available in our blog post.

  • German translation: The En-ROADS User Guide has been translated into German, and the advanced view help pages in En-ROADS now appear in German when it is the selected language.

  • Added carbon budget lines to the “Net Cumulative CO2 Emissions” graph. These lines indicate the level of accumulated CO2 that is consistent with a 66% chance of hitting either 2°C or 1.5°C. The carbon budget lines have been updated to be consistent with recently released IPCC AR6 values.

  • Removed the “Cumulative CO2 Emissions” graph as it is redundant.

  • Fixed the Actions & Outcomes view to display active policy switches (e.g., “Use clean electricity standard”).

  • Corrected the variables displayed in the “Oil Primary Energy Demand—Area” and “Bioenergy Primary Energy Demand—Area” graphs to match the non-area graphs.

Model Upgrade

  • En-ROADS model to version 21.10.0

  • Corrected the behavior of the “Renewable Primary Energy Demand” graph when the CDR maximum for BECCS is set to zero.

  • Corrected a bump in the economic damage curve when the “Reduction in GDP at 2°C” and “Maximum reduction in GDP” settings were the same.

  • Fixed an issue where the Social Cost of Carbon value could go negative.

  • Fixed an issue that caused a spike in the energy demand graphs when “% Reduction in coal/oil/gas utilization” is set to 100% and the “stop year” is set earlier than 2100.

September 2021 Release

Interface Changes

  • Climate impacts: Five new bar graphs have been added under the Graphs > Impacts menu showing the effects of climate change:

    • Population Exposed to Sea Level Rise

    • Probability of Ice-free Arctic Summer

    • Decrease in Crop Yield from Temperature

    • Species Losing More than 50% of Climatic Range

    • Additional Deaths from Extreme Heat

  • Graph actions menu: A new contextual menu is available by clicking the “three dots” icon to the right of a graph title. The menu reveals actions related to the graph:

    • Show Description

    • View Larger

    • View in New Window

    • Copy Data to Clipboard

  • Updated the range for the “Climate sensitivity” slider to match the new AR6 findings from the IPCC.

  • Revised the description for the “Social discount rate” slider.

  • Improved handling of scenario links with invalid parameters. When opening a link created with an older version of En-ROADS, if any parameters are no longer valid, a warning will be displayed showing which sliders are affected (instead of resetting the entire scenario).

Model Upgrade

  • En-ROADS model to version 21.9.0

  • Fixed the model so that the “HFC phase out start year” slider has an effect only when the “Use detailed settings” switch is active.

August 2021 Release

Interface Changes

  • Japanese translation: Additional graph and slider descriptions have been translated into Japanese.

  • To avoid redundancy, air pollution parameters have been consolidated under Assumptions > Air pollution with a single slider for each fuel type. This does not change model behavior.

  • Adjusted the y-axis range on several graphs to better display their plots.

  • Matched the y-axis maxima for pairs of graphs that display “Total” and “by Source—Area” information so they are more easily compared.

  • Improved the descriptions for the “Nuclear R&D breakthrough cost reduction” slider and the Bioenergy view.

  • Removed a redundant slider for methane leakage from the Natural Gas advanced view. The other slider is found in the Methane & Other Gases advanced view.

Model Upgrade

  • En-ROADS model to version 21.8.0

  • Corrected an error in the energy utilization sector which was causing the price of electricity to increase and preventing renewables from growing as they should in the absence of fossil fuel utilization.

  • Corrected an equation which omitted the hydro-generated energy from the “Renewables” plots in the “Final Energy Consumption” graphs.

July 2021 Release

Interface Changes

  • Arabic translation: The core En-ROADS interface is now available in Arabic.

  • COVID-19 impacts: Added a set of eight new sliders (under the Assumptions > COVID-19 impacts heading) for controlling the assumptions about the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on greenhouse gas emissions and other model parameters.

  • Removed the “Average Cost of Electricity Production” and “Low-Carbon Average Cost of Production” graphs. (Utilization in the model no longer depends on average costs, so the marginal cost graphs are more useful.)

  • Corrected the y-axis range of the “Land for Growing CO2-Removal Biomass” and “Land for Farming with CO2 Removal” graphs.

Model Upgrade

  • En-ROADS model to version 21.7.0

  • Added structure to model the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global economy, energy demand, and other indicators.

June 2021 Release

Model Upgrade


  • Added structure for clean electricity standard and social cost of carbon to the En-ROADS model.

  • Transmission and distribution costs for electricity are now included in the variable costs to produce the electricity.


  • En-ROADS model to version 21.6.0

  • Note that starting with this release, the model version number is now based on the date of the release (for example, 21.6 refers to the sixth month of 2021).

Interface Changes


  • Japanese translation: The core En-ROADS interface is now available in Japanese.

  • German translation: Additional graph and slider descriptions have been translated into German.

  • Clean electricity standard: Added new features to the “Carbon Pricing and Energy Standards” advanced view:

    • Activate the clean electricity standard policy with a switch and adjust the settings of the policy with multiple new input sliders.

    • Control the types of energy sources that qualify for the clean electricity standard.

    • New graph “% Electricity Consumption from Qualifying Sources” has been added to the Final Energy Consumption Types group.

  • Social cost of carbon: Added new table for the social cost of carbon in the Population & GDP group.

  • Added transport electrification sliders to separate out transport based on land (road and rail) from transport based in air or on water.


  • Added a link to view more historical graphs in the Model Comparison—Historical group.

  • Added a new button (on the main view and under the Help menu) that links to the web page for registering your En-ROADS events.

  • Added a line to compare the trajectory of HFCs with the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on the “SF6, PFC, and HFC Emissions” graph.

  • Added the “SF6, PFC, and HFC Emissions” graph to the list of related graphs in the “Methane & Other Gases” advanced view.

  • Added the version number to the lower right corner of the interface.

  • Removed “beta” references from the interface.

  • Reordered graphs in the Model Comparison—Historical group.

  • Improved graph and slider descriptions.

May 2021 Release

Model Upgrade


  • En-ROADS model to version 2.7.39

  • Updated data for non-CO2 GHGs through 2018 using PRIMAP 2.2.

Interface Changes


  • Translation into French: En-ROADS is now available in French.

  • Graph replacements: Because of differences in carrier efficiencies, the percent of capital that is electric is not the same as the percent of final energy for that capital. We have therefore changed the associated graphs from “Electric Share of Final Energy” to “Electric Share of Capital” for Buildings & Industry and for Transport.

  • We have rearranged the ordering of the Simulation > Assumptions sliders to follow the relative order of the slider groups on the En-ROADS main view.


  • Various small text edits to graph and slider descriptions.

April 2021 Release

Model Upgrade


  • En-ROADS model to version 2.7.38

  • Added model structure for carbon dioxide removal (CDR), carbon capture and storage (CCS), and economic impact of climate change on GDP.

Interface Changes


  • Structural upgrades to the user interface: We have updated the underlying architecture of En-ROADS to allow future feature additions to be added more easily. You will not see any functional differences in the operation of En-ROADS or in the interface layout of En-ROADS. There are some aesthetic improvements and multiple changes that make the simulation easier to operate. User experience improvements include:

    • The currently selected graph is indicated in the graph selection menu.

    • Sliders and menus work better on a wider variety of touchscreen devices (no more touchscreen warnings).

    • The interface is more responsive when resizing the browser window.

    • The simulation loads faster.

    • The Actions & Outcomes view size adapts to its contents.

    • Many other subtle additions that will enhance the usability of the simulation.

  • New Assumptions slider for social discount rate: We have added a new input slider, “Social discount rate,” under the Assumptions > Economic impact of climate change heading. The effect of changes to the social discount rate are displayed in a new graph, “Global GDP Loss” and in the Actions & Outcomes table as “Discounted Cumulative Damage through 2100.”

  • New Assumptions slider for fossil fuel CCS leak rate: We have added a new input slider, “Fossil fuel CCS leak rate,” under the Assumptions > Carbon capture & storage (CCS) effectiveness heading. This slider allows the user to test non-zero leak rates for fossil fuel CCS.

  • New graphs added to the simulation:

    • In the Removals and Land Use group:

      • Annual Volume of Captured CO2

      • Cumulative Storage of CO2

    • GDP-related graphs relocated to the Population & GDP group:

      • Reduction in GDP vs Temperature

      • Reduction in GDP from Climate Impacts

    • New GDP-related graphs also under the Population & GDP group:

      • GDP per Capita Growth Rate

      • Global GDP Loss (which also shows the discounted value of economic damage)

    Read more in our blog post about climate impacts on GDP.

  • New historical comparison graphs: There is a new graph menu group, Model Comparison—Historical. These graphs compare historical data to En-ROADS simulation output from 1990-2020.

    • Temperature History

    • Marginal Cost of Solar Electricity History

    • Primary Energy Demand of Coal, Oil, and Gas History

    • Primary Energy Demand of Wind and Solar History

    • Greenhouse Gas Net Emissions History

  • Added Spanish translations of graph and slider descriptions.

March 2021 Release

Model Upgrade


  • En-ROADS model to version 2.7.37

  • Added model structure for economic impact of climate change on GDP.

Interface Changes


  • Improved the colors on the “Renewables Capacity — Area” graph to make the plots easier to distinguish.

  • Changed the Simulation > Assumptions > Climate sensitivity > “Sea level rise from ice sheet melting” slider label to “Additional sea level rise from ice sheet melt” and edited its associated description text for greater clarity.


  • Translation into Italian: En-ROADS is now available in Italian.

  • New slider for Economic impact of climate change: A new slider type with two input “handles” has been added to the Assumptions menu: Economic impact of climate change. The two handles control “Reduction in GDP at 2ºC from climate impacts” and “Maximum reduction in GDP.”

  • Two new “Climate impact on GDP” related graphs have been added under the Impacts header:

    • Reduction in GDP vs Temperature

    • Reduction in GDP from Climate Impacts

  • Read more in our blog post about the economic impact of climate change in En-ROADS.

  • Added an Assumptions slider for the progress ratio of electrifying transport, buildings, and industry under Simulation > Assumptions > Progress ratio > Electric carrier.

February 2021 Release

Model Upgrade


  • En-ROADS model to version 2.7.36

  • Updated temperature change data and reference years using new temperature data update in HADCRUT5 dataset from December 2020.

  • Modified En-ROADS to use baseline data from C-ROADS that is fed into the En-ROADS data model for initialization.

  • Updated profitability effects to avoid getting too large with extremes that were leading to drastic and unrealistic swings that could be seen in capacity, utilization, and pricing.

  • PRIMAP 2.1 data (2019) of historic GHG emissions were used to update initial fractions of each non-CO2 GHG emissions from agriculture, waste, extracted fuel supply, demand capital, and non-CO2 GHG emissions from energy use) and to improve calibration.

  • Improved and simplified CH4 concentration calibration to avoid unnecessarily introducing more uncertainty in response to CH4 concentration effects on uptake and to include updated PRIMAP data.


  • Resolved unexpected bioenergy demand spikes that had appeared in the previous release for some scenarios.

Interface Changes


  • Four new translations: New translations added for simplified Chinese, traditional Chinese, German, and Bulgarian. More languages on the way in March!

  • New graphs: New graphs added related to enhanced mineralization and other carbon removal approaches:

    • Land for Growing CO2-Removal Biomass

    • Land for Farming with CO2 Removal

    • Bulk Material for Mineralization

    For more details about the carbon removal approaches displayed in these new graphs see this related blog post.

  • Added new assumptions specific to enhanced mineralization (found in Assumptions > Mineralization settings).

  • Relocated the Language menu to the first menu position and included a globe icon as an indicator for the menu.


  • Changed terminology from “mid-19th century” to 1850.

  • Adjusted some graph and slider labels for better fit in translations.

January 2021 Release

Interface Changes


  • Translation into Turkish: We have a new translation into Turkish this release. Check it out under the Language menu.

  • New graph: Added a new graph, “% Electricity Consumption from Low-Carbon Sources”. Find it under “Final Energy Consumption Types” under the Graphs menu.

  • Corrected all references to Purchasing Power Parity to $US 2017. Other various text edits.

December 2020 Release

Read more details about the update.

Watch a video overview of the details of the update.

Model Upgrade


  • Updated Baseline: Several model adjustments related to renewable energy sources, pre-industrial temperature benchmarking, and modeling of non-greenhouse gas forcings have lowered the baseline temperature in 2100 to 3.6°C/6.5°F.

  • Renewables are now disaggregated and explicitly modeled for solar, wind, geothermal, and other renewables.

  • We also account for the historical subsidies for renewables and the “soft costs” associated with each renewable type. These soft costs have declined as experience was gained.

  • The temperature change reported is now relative to the 19th century.

  • Initial heat is now calculated from historic temperature change in 1990, taken from temperature anomaly relative to 19th century from GISS (2020) and Hadley (2020) and adjusted to be relative to 18th century mean.

  • Other forcings taken from Meinshausen (2011) to reflect those relative to 18th century. Natural forcings easier to subtract to obtain anthropogenic forcings for Equivalent CO2 concentration.

  • Initial CO2, CH4, and N2O updated to reflect actual data from GISS instead of C-ROADS 1990 values.

  • Decrease in extraction overheating sensitivity and profitability effects on retirement rates of supply sources to dampen rapid changes in bioenergy demand.


  • En-ROADS model to version 2.7.35c

Interface Changes


  • New default graphs: Changed the default graphs from “Global Sources of Primary Energy” and “Temperature Change” to “Global Sources of Primary Energy — Area” and “Greenhouse Gas Net Emissions”.

  • Added several graphs related to renewable energy:

    • “Low Carbon Average Cost of Electricity Production by Source”,

    • “Low Carbon Marginal Cost of Electricity Production by Source”, and

    • “Renewables Capacity — Area”.

  • Changed the phrase “Business as usual” and “BAU” to “Baseline” across the interface, graphs, legends and descriptions.

  • Renamed “New Technology” Energy Supply to “New Zero Carbon” Energy Supply throughout En-ROADS interface.

  • Changed the population input slider to display “billion people in 2100” instead of the -1 to +1 index range.

  • Expanded the inputs for Economic Growth from a single input to now include “Long-term economic growth”, “Near-term economic growth” and a “Transition time” for the “Near-term economic growth” to converge on the “Long-term economic growth” rate.


  • Changed the start year for input sliders to 2021.

  • The ranges for Tax/Subsidy sliders have been updated.

  • Some graph descriptions have been edited for clarity.

  • Adjusted the Y-axis maximum on some graphs to display the data better over different input configurations.

October 2020 Release

Model Upgrade


  • En-ROADS model to version 2.7.29b

  • Corrected the “New Tech” plot in the “Marginal Cost of Electricity Production” graph when the “New Technology” advanced sliders are adjusted.

Interface Changes


  • Added a short description at the top of the Assumptions panel to clarify how the sliders behave relative to the “Current” and “Business as Usual” scenarios.

  • Fixed descriptions of transport electrification sliders to remove mention of ships and airplanes.

September 2020 Release

In addition to the details listed below, we’ve made a video highlighting the important new features.

Check it out: September 2020 Release Video

Interface Changes


  • Spanish: En-ROADS is now available in Spanish! We’re working to bring En-ROADS to even more languages too.

  • Air Pollution graphs: There are two new graphs in the “Graphs > Impacts” menu showing Air Pollution (PM2.5 Emissions) from the energy sector. Additionally, sliders were added in the “Assumptions” panel to allow for adjusting the emission factor assumptions.

Model Upgrade


  • En-ROADS model to version 2.7.29

Other Interface Changes


  • Fixed the Kaya view to show “Carbon Intensity of Final Energy” instead of “Carbon Intensity of Primary Energy”.

  • Fixed the menu bar to make it easier to select sub-menu items on iPad.

  • Fixed tooltips on iPad so that they disappear automatically.

  • Fixed alignment of slider handles on iPad.

  • Fixed full screen layout on iPad so that the menu bar is not obscured by the Safari-provided controls.

  • Fixed the large graph window to display in the current language (instead of defaulting to English).

  • Fixed the x-axis labels on Kaya graphs to not overlap on large screens.

  • Fixed graphs to not show tooltips for years outside the displayed range.

  • Removed calibration graphs (these will be replaced by improved graphs in an upcoming release).

August 2020 Release

Interface Changes


  • Portuguese: En-ROADS is now available in Portuguese! Localization to more languages is in progress, and we hope to come to your native language soon.

  • Initial iPad Support: You can now run En-ROADS on your iPad (in Safari or your preferred browser)! In this release, the user experience is better on iPad models released in the last 3 years. In upcoming releases, we will be working to improve performance and refine the user experience across all iPad models.


  • Improved performance in a number of areas, so sliders should feel smoother and more responsive (and further improvements are in the works).

  • When sharing a scenario, the user’s preference for Metric vs U.S. Units is captured and remembered in the URL.

Control Slider Related Changes


  • Updated the “Carbon Price” slider description to include bioenergy in the list of impacts.

  • Removed accidental mention of deforestation in the “Other greenhouse gases start year” slider description under “Methane & Other Gases”.

July 2020 Release



  • Corrected the y-axis of the “Marginal Cost of Electricity Production” graph to adjust dynamically to keep graph lines in view.

  • Corrected the “Renewables Primary Energy Demand” graph to reflect hydro in addition to renewables.

Control Slider Related Changes


  • Improved descriptions for the “Year to stop building new infrastructure” sliders for coal, oil, and natural gas.

Other Interface Changes


  • Improved email sharing of scenarios by showing a preview of the message to be sent, and allowing for a custom note to be included with the shared scenario.

  • Changed the welcome screen to direct feedback and questions to support.climateinteractive.org.

  • Changed the “General FAQs” link under the Help menu to direct to the Knowledge Base on the support site.

May 2020 Release

Model Upgrade


  • En-ROADS model to version 2.7.19

  • Add email sharing of your current scenario to “Share Scenario” menu button.

  • Update GDP with 2018 World Bank data.


  • Minor edits to description texts

April 2020 Release

Model Upgrade


  • En-ROADS model to version 2.7.14

  • Added link to “Uses for En-ROADS” under the Help menu

  • Add menu control for “Reset Policies” sliders and “Reset Assumptions” sliders under “Simulation” menu; changed wording of “Reset” to “Reset Policies & Assumptions.”


  • When switching from Metric Units to U.S. Units, the “Land for Carbon Dioxide Removal” graph switches from “Million hectares” to “Million acres”.


  • Improved location of icons in the top toolbar to help avoid accidental clicks on the “Reset Policies & Assumptions” icon (formerly, “Reset sliders” tool tip).

  • Correcting Large graph feature so graphs are sized correctly in the remote window.

  • Edits to description texts for “Coal carbon capture & storage (CCS) (tax/subsidy)” slider, “Gas carbon capture & storage (CCS) (tax/subsidy)” slider and the overall description for Nuclear in the advanced views.

March 2020 Release

Along with the details listed below, we’ve made a cool video highlighting the important feature additions and changes to model behavior.

Check it out: March 2020 Release Video

Model Upgrade


  • En-ROADS model to version 2.7.11

  • Updated the equation for the Energy Intensity of New Capital to better respond to price effects

  • BAU improvement rate in emission intensity and Annual improvement rate of emission intensity for F-gases were adjusted to reflect SSP2 baseline trajectories

  • The settings for CH4 and N2O emissions from agriculture and waste have also been slightly updated



  • Add “Hydro” data to “Average Cost of Electricity Production” graph and correct the name of “Renew/Hydro” to Renewables”

  • Corrected several missing Related Graphs in some advanced views

  • Corrected the variable in “Marginal Cost of Renewables” graph

  • Corrected typo in descriptions for N2O and CH4 graphs (Megatons was corrected to 1x106)

  • The y-axis label in graph “CO2 Emissions” was corrected to Gigatons CO2/year


  • Edited the description for “CH4 Emissions” graph and corrected the plotted variable to display anthropogenic CH4 emissions

  • Edited “Storage Costs” graph description for clarity

  • Edited the description for “Cumulative CO2 Emissions” graph

  • Changed the graph name from “Fuel Production Cost” to “Fuel Production Cost by Source” to make it consistent with the titles of the other graphs in the Financial category that are broken out by energy source

  • Added “Greenhouse Gas Net Emissions by Gas—Area” to related graphs for Deforestation

Control Slider Related Changes


  • Updated New Tech slider description to match what the slider settings do

  • Added back a missing description for slider, “Coal CCS R&D breakthrough cost reduction”

  • Edit description for slider, “% Reduction in Coal Utilization”


  • Edit slider names referring to final carbon price, removing the word “target” so it is now:

    • Final carbon price (previously, Final Carbon price final target)

    • Year to start achieving final carbon price (previously, Year to start achieving final carbon price target)

    • Years to achieve final carbon price (previously, Years to achieve final carbon price target)

  • Added back assumptions sliders for “Methane emissions from biological activity”, “Effect of temperature on methane emissions from permafrost and clathrates”, and “Temperature threshold for permafrost and clathrates”

Other Interface Changes


  • You can create a large copy of any of the graphs to use on additional screens or monitors. The graph outputs in the copies remain connected to changes in the control input sliders. These graphs are accessed under the View menu, as “Large Left Graph and “Large Right graph”. You may select multiple copies of left or right graphs.

Coming Soon

  • Localization to many languages is in process! We hope to come to your native language soon!